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Archive for November, 2017

Studies Reveal Moxibustion-Acupuncture’s Effectiveness In Treating Cervical Spondylosis

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As an alternative therapy, acupuncture has long been quite a popular way to relieve neck pain; on the other hand, moxibustion acupuncture may be a new and a bit scary for even acupuncture enthusiasts. Some people may seem that the thought of setting fire to a substance (moxa) at the top end of an acupuncture needle may seem like a step too far, so why is this multi-millennia old technique still practiced? More importantly, can moxibustion acupuncture work in treating neck pain?

A component of an ancient Oriental medical system known as traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), moxibustion is a healing method that usually involves the use of an herb widely known for its healing qualities, mugwort. The truth is acupuncture’s Chinese character actually translates to acupuncture-moxibustion, as this therapy was designed to stimulate energy (qi), boost the blood, and support overall wellbeing and health.

A common practice to stimulate the uterus, moxibustion acupuncture is also used to rectify other issues associated with the female reproductive system such as menstrual cramping and breech births. In recent years, it has likewise been researched to ascertain the possible risks and benefits for neck pain and other physical conditions.

Direct and Indirect Moxibustion Acupuncture

In Western cultures, direct moxibustion is rarely practiced as there is a danger of scarring and blisters. Direct moxibustion entails the placing of a small amount of mugwort, that’s converted into moxa, on top of an acupuncture point, lit up, and allowed to burn out. Practitioners of this procedure can also take out the moxa before it completely burns out, thereby limiting any skin burning. If the moxa is removed at the right time scarring, blistering, and pain could be avoided. Instead, a pleasurable feeling of heat should penetrate the skin and help release tension and pain.

Indirect moxibustion is the more preferred moxibustion procedure used in Western acupuncture treatments. The procedure entails the application of moxa to the top end of an acupuncture needle that has been inserted into an acupoint. The moxa is then set on fire in order to warm the needle. After the completion of the treatment, the burning moxa is put out and the needle removed. One other type of indirect moxibustion involves the burning of a moxa stick that’s held for a few minutes very near the targeted acupoint until the skin turns red. This type of moxibustion and the indirect form are both deemed to pose a much lower risk of burning or pain compared to direct moxibustion.

When Should Be Moxibustion Used?

Based on TCM principles, moxibustion acupuncture should only be used for stagnant or cold conditions and not for issues where there is too much heat. In the treatment of neck pain, this therapy may be useful for people whose pain is considered to be the result of blocked qi (energy), tension, weak blood flow, and not for inflammatory conditions.

As usual, any person performing moxibustion acupuncture or any alternative treatment for neck pain should have undergone proper education. In moxibustion acupuncture, the practitioner should hold a traditional Chinese medicine degree or should be a qualified acupuncturist. In the US, you could only practice moxibustion if you have an acupuncture license. If your patient has a respiratory condition, the practitioner can use smokeless moxa sticks as the odor and smoke a burning moxa can be overwhelming.

Can Neck Pain Be Cured With Moxibustion Acupuncture?

A few years ago a study was published that specifically dealt with the use of moxibustion acupuncture in the treatment of neck pain due to arthritis in the neck (or cervical spondylosis). The 145 subjects who participated in the study were divided into three groups in this randomized clinical trial: 48 subjects in the moxibustion group, 48 subjects in the acupuncture group, and 49 subjects in the acupuncture-moxibustion group.

All subjects were treated using the TE 3 (Shongshu), Sl 15 (Chiangshongshu), GV 14 (Dashui), and Extra (Bailao) acupoints. For the moxibustion group, at each of these acupoints, three cones and seed-size moxa were applied. Twenty minute needling session in all of these acupoints was administered in the acupuncture group. Both protocols were utilized for the combination group.

All subjects were treated in the prescribed manner once every three days and within four weeks, they should have undergone 10 treatments. Three months later, they were required to undergo a follow-up period. Evaluations were done using the MPQ (McGill Pain Questionnaire) and NPQ (Northwick Park Pain Questionnaire).

Compared to baseline, outcomes revealed that after three months, all three groups had lower MPQ and NPQ scores; however the group that was treated with acupuncture-moxibustion had lower scores compared to the groups treated with either moxibustion or acupuncture alone. There was a significant difference in the efficacy of the treatment in all three groups, although it was seen that all of them experienced substantial alleviation of pain caused by cervical spondylosis.

Neck Pain Treatment Using Direct Moxibustion

In another published study in recent years, the efficacy of moxibustion on treatment of cervical spondylosis of the vertebral artery was tested and observed. The study involved the participation of 60 patients who were assigned randomly to a group. One group was treated with a regular dosage of moxa and the other group received a saturated dosage of moxa. Two acupoints wherein heat sensitivity (thermo-sensitization) was considered to be strongest were selected for moxibustion treatment. In the saturated treatment group, moxibustion time was gauged by the loss of heat sensitivity, while in the regular dose group a 15 minute standard therapy was administered on each acupoint. Both groups during the first four days were given a couple of treatments each day, then for the next 10 days, treatments were given once a day.

The treatment’s clinical efficacy, and the patients’ function and symptoms were documented prior to and post treatments as well on the follow-up treatment six months later. The group that received regular moxa dosage experienced symptomatic relief in 26.7 percent and 30 percent of the patients after treatment and after six months, respectively while for the saturated moxa treatment group, the efficacy rate was shown to be 56.7 percent post treatment and 60 percent six months post treatment. When it came to function and clinical symptoms, both groups experienced improvements post treatment and at follow-up, although, much greater improvement was shown in the saturated moxa group.

Current Research Constraints

All the above-mentioned studies indicate the inherent benefits of moxibustion acupuncture for relief of neck pain due to arthritis, but forethought is in order as those researches are not placebo-controlled (that could be performed with moxibustion or needling of non-acupoints) and are isolated. Additional studies are required to ascertain if the moxibustion acupuncture benefits can be applied to other issues that can result in neck pain, and whether a placebo effect is arising there. Neck pain direct moxibustion acupuncture treatment can also result in complications and long term or even permanent skin damage and so should only be performed by an experienced and qualified practitioner.

Thrive Wellness Center
1244 S Federal Hwy
Fort Lauderdale, FL 33316
Phone: (954) 713-6118
http://thrivewellnesscenter.com

Written by Valerie

November 21st, 2017 at 6:04 am

Learn Acupressure Techniques To Relieve Ailments And Promote Wellbeing To Other People

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Learning acupressure techniques in Tarzana that can provide you and other people a great massage to advance wellbeing and peace and to alleviate tension headaches is not really difficult to do.

Developed in Asia more than 4,500 years ago, acupressure is a very old art of healing that uses thumb, fingers, elbow, or hand to apply pressure on certain areas of the surface of the skin to accelerate healing in the body. Acupressure follows the same principles that underlie the practice of acupuncture, but instead of needles (used in acupuncture healing) uses finger pressure to stimulate specific points on the body. Acupressure is a means to release and access congested or obstructed energy centers within the body. It is usually performed in a similar way as traditional massage. Acupressure is considered a complementary therapy and is not meant to be a replacement for medical care. It is a preventative treatment that is ideal for fatigue. You will appreciate its benefits within a single or couple contractions as you learn to apply its techniques. Acupressure/Shiatsu is deeply relaxing, gentle, healing, nourishing, and soothing to the bones, blood, tissues, muscles, and nerves. It also brings hormonal balance to the body. If you want to learn acupressure, you need to know the points that generate the healing reaction for the health problems you want to repair.

How Can These Points Be Used in Acupressure and Where Are These Points Located in the Body?

The pressure points are massaged with medium pressure with the thumb or finger, and on certain instances, with a blunt object, in a rather swift circular motion. The ancient Chinese considered these points to be crossroads of meridian channels that convey chi or vital energy. In the West, scientists have also proven the existence of these points and have mapped them out through the use of electrical devices. There are acupressure points that are quite important as they’re associated to a certain part of the body; the other acupoints tend to have more general effects. When performing acupressure, the aim is usually to activate the self-recuperative powers of the body through the stimulation of specified acupoints on the body. The application of pressure on these points causes muscle tension to be released and the enhancement of Chi and blood flow to bring about healing. Acupressure and acupuncture utilize the same acupoints, but in acupressure firm but gentle feet and manual pressure is used while in acupuncture, needles are employed to stimulate the acupoints. Unfortunately, the more ancient practice of acupressure was abandoned by the Chinese as more technological ways for activating points like electricity were developed.

Acupressure Massage

An acupressure massage usually lasts for 5 to 15 minutes. Every point is massaged until you feeling a numbing sensation. Acupressure activates and stimulates the innate energies of the body to bring back harmony and help combat sickness. The feet, knees, elbows, hands, and fingers are often used to massage the body. In all instances, the techniques of acupressure massage are utilized in combination with other proper medical care. Prior to and after Olympic events, many athletes now use sports massage to help tune their body.

Learn Some Acupressure Techniques to Provide Relief and Comfort to Others

The body can be deeply relaxed and blood flow and tension can be respectively enhanced and reduced by the healing touch of acupressure. Acupressure techniques can advance healing and can allow the muscles to relax. For example, acupressure can help a person with cancer by helping to relieve some of the related anxiety and pain of the disease and can quicken the repair of a broken bone once it has been set. Each acupressure point can generate certain benefits to a number of symptoms and complaints because the activation of one acupoint can transmit a healing signal to other body parts.

Written by Valerie

November 21st, 2017 at 5:40 am

The Efficacy Of Ear Acupuncture In Weight Loss

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Losing weight through ear acupuncture has actually been practiced for hundreds of years even if the thought of sticking needles into different parts of the outer ear sounds bizarre or strange.

In Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), the ear is a micro-system with pressure points that are associated with some vital organs in the body. Once needles are stuck into these points, appetite can be restrained and a person’s overeating and food binging can be prevented while his/her metabolism can be speeded up.

In treating weight loss with ear acupuncture, the stimulation of the ear points causes the release of endorphins that generates a calming effect will that can relieve frustration, anxiety, and stress. These feelings are what actually cause cravings for unhealthy, fattening foods and overeating.

Laser acupuncture of the ear is a newer version of ear acupuncture. In lieu of needles, laser energy is focused on the same acupoints in this type of treatment. The endorphins also affect the hormonal and digestive systems that lead to a rebalance of these systems and contribute to a regulation of appetite and a reduction of food cravings.

The rebalance of the hormonal and digestive systems also leads to a faster metabolism and a stronger will to resist temptation from eating unhealthy foods and overeating.

Boosting the Effectiveness of Ear Acupuncture for Losing Weight in Boca Raton

With a tack preceding the insertion of a needle, the ear acupuncture points are activated. A magnet or bead is adhered to the acupuncture point promoting the enhancement of its effectiveness after the insertion of the needle. The patient is advised to exert mild pressure to the magnet or bead if he/she begins to feel the pangs of hunger during the process of the therapy. In this manner, the patient can curb his/her appetite with the release of endorphins.

More often than not, the treatment programme is scheduled once or two times a week for two to three months; therefore, it entails of bit of time for the patient to achieve his/her desired weight. The efficacy of ear acupuncture treatment for weight loss nowhere translates to a cure-all or miracle for losing unwanted weight. In order to lose weight with ear acupuncture, one needs to include an exercise regimen and a healthy diet into the treatment programme.

The capacity of ear acupuncture in assisting a person to attain a desired quick reduction of weight lies in the ability of the person to manage his/her food cravings. Certain ear acupoints that are associated with the endocrine system for water retention, the lung for sugar and food addicts, and the mouth for impulsive eaters, are all vital in the success of ear acupuncture treatment for weight loss.

For optimal results, breathing techniques and Chinese herbal therapies can be combined with ear acupuncture.

Ear acupuncture treatment to lose weight is real and is a time-tested way to achieve your desired weight. This treatment is a great way to achieve weight loss goals quickly and easily more than one can expect especially when it’s combined with exercise routine and a healthy diet and other types of natural treatments.

Written by Valerie

November 14th, 2017 at 4:59 pm

The Difference Between Ear Acupuncture And Auriculotherapy

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In 1956, French doctor Dr. Paul Nogier’s original work gave the world with what is now known as auriculotherapy. This treatment is different from ear acupuncture as ear acupuncture entails the insertion of needles inserted into a fixed group of acupuncture points while auriculotherapy neither uses needles nor does it use fixed acupuncture points. Points used in auriculotherapy are generated by enervation of three cervical ganglia and four cranial nerves. They are not acupuncture points.

A practitioner of auriculotherapy utilizes a pen-shaped portable manual medical device (classified as class 11 by the FDA) called STIM PLUS PRO to

1. Search for the auriculotherapy point,

2. Diagnose the identified point, and

3. Resolve the point if observed to be irregular

Auriculotherapy involves the seeking and treating of ear neurological points by stimulating it with mild pulses of electrical current. The treatment is virtually painless. The device STIM PLUS PRO is used to treat each point for half a minute. The therapy is done on both ears for 30 days, 5 days a week for about 10 minutes a day. In ear acupuncture, the needles are left inserted in the body for 20 minutes to over an hour.

Research Studies Dealing with Auriculotherapy and Acupuncture

Several studies starting in the late 1970’s have been conducted to assess acupuncture’s and lately auriculotherapy’s efficacy in addressing addictions. A recent MEDLINE search found over 9,780 studies dealing with the use of acupuncture in treating all types of substance use disorder (SUD) including smoking behavior, binge eating, stimulant abuse, heroin and cocaine addiction, and alcoholism. The bulk of data are derived from clinical studies dealing with acupuncture and they mostly involved the treatment’s ability to reduce the pain and other discomforts related to opiate addiction. In 1977, a bunch of studies led by Wen demonstrated significant withdrawal symptom relief within 15 minutes of the onset of the therapies. In a follow up study conducted by Schuckit et al, 51 of the subjects had been free of drugs during the interim. Oieson and Kroening, in 1985 discovered that ear acupuncture combined with the steep withdrawal of opiate use led to a successful stoppage of drug use of 86 percent of the patients within five days to a week with minimal side effects. Right now, the literature indicates some positive studies using auriculotherapy, ear acupuncture, or acupuncture including: cocaine addiction (NADA protocol, five point therapy protocol established by the (NADA) National Acupuncture Detoxification Association, alcoholism (1995, Brewer), smoking (1997, He et al.)

Here are some positive feedbacks from patients treated with auriculotherapy, ear acupuncture, or acupuncture: “Before acupuncture, I never stopped craving drugs even though I was clean.” “I’m now calmer.” “My desire for booze is reduced and my natural energy is restored.” “It quickly helped kick my heroin habit.” “I can sleep well now.” “Headache is gone.” “I am now less moody.”

Here are a few comments from drug court advocates: “With acupuncture, I had witnessed awesome results for my patients.” “Patients are coming in more physically, mentally, and emotionally balanced.”

Dr. Nelya de Brun, AP, DAOM
Classical Oriental Medicine, LLC
3459 Woolbright Rd
Boynton Beach, FL 33436
(561) 932-3905
http://www.acu-wellness.com/

Written by Valerie

November 14th, 2017 at 4:56 pm

Study Suggests Combined Acupuncture And Moxibustion Treatment Can Treat Symptoms Of Ankylosing Spondylitis

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A recent clinical study demonstrates acupuncture’s effectiveness in the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) in Bellmore, a chronic inflammatory form of arthritis. Acupuncture can alleviate the symptoms of ankylosing spondylitis which is a condition affecting the spinal vertebrae and other body areas. It can deform sufferers into a stooped forward position causing reduced flexibility. People with AS may be unable to lift their head upwards to a level position.

Oftentimes, AS affects the intestines, eyes, sacroiliac joints, pelvis, and spinal joints. In extreme cases, it can cause the spinal vertebrae’s anterior aspect to fuse together. Tendons and ligaments can also be affected leading to tendonitis. Researchers believe that ankylosing spondylitis can be due to genetics. It is also suspected to be associated with a dysfunction in the autoimmune system.

According to a recent study, when acupuncture needles are inserted in the Du meridian or Governing Vessel meridian, and when this procedure is combined with moxibustion therapy, the human subjects suffering from ankylosing spondylitis experienced significant relief in pain. The Du meridian is an acupuncture energy channel that travels to four major areas of the body. One pathway starts in the perineum and goes up toward the spine up to the neck. Then, it traverses the brain and goes up further to the top of the head. It continues along the midline of the forehead across the bridge of the nose and ends at the upper lip. Another pathway begins at the pelvic area and travels the coccyx, genitals, and gluteal area before going back to the spinal column. A third pathway connects to the eyes’ inner canthus before the channel goes up across the forehead to the top of the head. This third pathway then goes into the brain and reappears at the neck where it goes down along the spinal column’s opposite sides to the waist. The fourth pathway of this meridian starts at the lower stomach and goes across the umbilicus, heart and windpipe. It then encircles the mouth and ends under the eye.

The study was extremely specialized and only studied patients who had undergone both the TCM (Traditional Chinese Medicine) differential diagnosis of deficient Kidney Yang and the conventional diagnostic methods that determined ankylosing spondylitis. Deficient Kidney Yang is a pattern of disharmony or a syndrome within the system of TCM that’s marked by loss of hearing, tinnitus, weakening of the knees, low libido, impotence, hair loss, loosening of the teeth, and pain and weakness in the lumbar region. It is often accompanied by typical deficient Yang symptoms such as pallor, low energy, and an overall cold feeling throughout the body. The Du meridian was selected as the focal point of the treatment plan due to its strategic location in the spinal area and its traditional indications for the resolution of spinal conditions. In the study, the researchers observed that the moxibustion therapy on the Du meridian led to significant relief of pain associated with ankylosing spondylitis; however, they also observed that when moxibustion was combined with acupuncture it led to greater results than the outcomes of standalone moxibustion therapy.

Written by Valerie

November 7th, 2017 at 4:54 pm

Chinese Nutritional Therapies For The Different Types Of Asthma

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A condition involving a diffused inflammation of the upper respiratory tract, asthma can be initiated by a variety of stimuli, leading to reversible partial or total constriction of the bronchi. Signs and symptoms include wheezing, dyspepsia, coughing, and chest tightness. Asthma diagnosis is established based on the patient’s pulmonary function examinations, physical examination, and medical history. Treatment includes avoiding the triggering factors and drugs, usually with the use of inhaled corticosteroids and nasal β2-adrenergic receptor agonists.

Asthma affects between four to seven percent of the world population. In the US, over 20 million people suffer from it. Over 6 million American children have asthma making it one of the most common chronic childhood diseases in this country.

According to Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), asthma is caused by deficiencies of three major organs that are either inherited and/or due to a poor lifestyle that has a damaging effect on the kidneys, spleen, and lungs along with infiltration of outside pathogens. Asthma occurring at a very young age due to a family history of asthma can sometimes be exacerbated and triggered by weakness of the kidney organ.

In certain instances, children with asthma may suffer from a digestion system problem, upper respiratory infection, and a high susceptibility of ear infections. Along with asthma, these children are also likely to have lung and spleen deficiencies. The objective of Chinese nutritional therapy differs from patient to patient. For patients with a family history of asthma, treatment involves the strengthening of the kidney organs after asthma relief and a prioritization of vigorous preventative measures. Depending on the frequency and magnitude of asthma attacks, Chinese nutritional therapy, combined with herbal medicine and acupuncture in Cleveland, is one of the best treatment plans during the remission period.

In diagnostic patterns of TCM, asthma has four different patterns. They include a kidney deficiency type, spleen and lung qi deficiency type, hot type, and cold type.

Along with using a viable treatment plan, TCM practitioners should identify if the asthma is a hot or cold type for patients suffering from an asthma attack. Only after the identification of the type of asthma will a correct nutritional therapy be determined in order to promote the healing process.

A patient in remission should talk to a TCM practitioner to know what organ has a deficiency, and to treat the patient, the practitioner uses preventive therapies such as Chinese nutritional therapy among others.

The following is an outline of the different types of asthma and their corresponding nutritional therapies:

I. Asthma with Kidney Deficiency

Asthma sufferers with a deficient kidney qi are inclined to also suffer from inhalation difficulties (aside from shortness of breath) worsened by movement, a feeling of coldness, pale complexion, tinnitus, and weakness in the lower back and both knees. Some patients might experience sweating, anxiety with a warm sensation, and red cheeks.

Walnut Duck Soup:

Ingredients: One whole duck, cooking wine, salt, ginger, 150 grams water chestnut cut into tiny pieces, 200 grams walnut.

All ingredients are cooked together until the meat is well-done. Serve.

II. Asthma with Deficient Spleen and Lung Qi

The food recipes for these patterns of disharmony are designed to strengthen and harmonize the organs during the period of asthma remission. This Chinese nutritional food therapy can be used with or without the need for herbal remedies.

Eight Treasure Chicken:

Ingredients: 500 grams old hen chicken, 60 grams sweet rice (soaked in water until soft), 20 grams lotus seed (soaked in water until soft), 75 grams chicken pea (soaked in water until soft), 30 grams cox seed (soaked in water until soft), 20 grams Shitake mushroom (soaked in water until soft) then sliced into small pieces, ginger, spices, salt, and 30 grams of minced ham

All ingredients are placed in the stomach of the chicken. Stomach is sewed up. Chickened is steamed or boiled in water till fully cooked. Serve.

Walnut Duck:

Ingredients: One whole fresh duck, 120 grams walnuts, 120 grams honey, 120 grams white rock sugar, 120 grams white sugar.

All ingredients are placed into the stomach of the duck. Duck is boiled in water until entirely cooked. Serve. For one course of treatment two ducks can be consumed.

Walnut Apricot Soup (single serving)

Ingredients: Five grams walnut, 5 grams, apricot kernel, and 30 grams honey

Place all ingredients in a bowl and steam till the nuts are well-cooked. Take out the bowl from the steamer than add 20 drops of fresh ginger juice into the bowl. Eat first the nuts and then drink the soup.

Eat one bowl every other day.

White Fungus Mushroom Soup

Ingredients: white fungus mushroom soaked in warm water for half an hour then cut into small pieces, 60 grams rock sugar, egg white of one chicken egg.

First, cook sugar and mushroom in water together until the mushroom is soft, then, while the soup is boiling, filter the mushroom out. Add the white of the egg into the soup slowly, while you stir the soup. Serve.

III. Hot Type of Asthma

Symptoms of hot type asthma include a feeling of thirst, dry mouth, bitter taste in the mouth, reddish face, sweating, anxiety, dry thick yellow mucus difficult to expectorate, rasping breath, and wheezing.

When asthma attacks, people with hot type asthma should seek medical attention. Nutritional therapy along with other treatments can facilitate quicker healing and recovery.

Tofu Turnip Juice

Ingredients: 500 grams tofu (soft and fresh) sliced into small cuts, 500 grams of fresh turnip juice, 100 grams of light molasses.

Juice the fresh turnip is juiced, then added with molasses and tofu. The juice is boiled the served. Drink juice two times a day.

Green Tea Egg

Ingredients: fifteen grams green tea and 2 chicken eggs

The eggs and green tea leaves are cooked in water. When the eggs are done, their shells are removed and the eggs are placed back into the tea for cooking until the water has almost dried up. Eat the eggs.

Sang Ye Peanuts

Ingredients: 45 grams of fresh mulberry leaves, sang ye, 15 grams of raw peanuts without the shells, and 15 grams of white rock sugar.

Boil everything in water, until the peanuts are cooked. Only eat the peanuts.

Herbal tea

Ingredients: one teaspoon kuan down ye or kuan dong hua.

Boil in a cup of water for half an hour. Add honey for taste.

Cyathula Officinalis (Niu hsin cao) – Boil a cup of water with one teaspoon of this herb. Add honey and drink as tea.

I. Cold Type of Asthma

Signs and symptoms of cold type asthma include a sensation of fullness in the chest, a dusty face, an urge to drink but with no feeling of thirst, pus-like discharge without blood, watery or thin mucus, and shortness of breath.

Ginger Rice Soup:

Ingredients: Nine grams of Fresh ginger sliced into small bits, 6 pieces apricot kernel, and 50 grams sweet rice

Cook apricot kernels and sweet together in water at low temperature; soup is done when rice is very soft. Before serving add ginger to the soup. Eat during breakfast and dinner.

Green Onion Rice Soup:

Ingredients: Fifteen pieces fresh green onion all cut three centimeters long (only use white part of the onion), 50 grams spring rice, 10 grams black colored fermented soy bean, a pinch of salt.

To make soup, cook rice with water; the soup is done when the rice becomes very soft. Then add the salt, fermented soy beans, and green onion and cook for an additional 25 minutes. Serve during dinner.

Soothing Asthma Powder

Ingredients: 500 grams octopus bone (bone is washed and baked until dry, and then grounded into powder) and 1 kg organic brown sugar.

Mix the brown sugar and octopus powder together.

For adults take 20 gm with warm water, for two weeks thrice a day. For young children, take one half to one third the dosage of adults.

Written by Valerie

November 7th, 2017 at 4:49 pm